Arsip Kategori: Types of Text (Genre)



Teks: Review
1. Ciri Umum:
(a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks:
Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar khalayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll.

(b) Struktur Teks:
• Pengenalan;(orientation)
• Evaluasi 1;
• Evaluasi 2;
• Tafsir;(Interpretive)
• Evaluasi 3;
• Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;
• Rangkuman.(Evaluative Summation)

(c) Ciri Kebahasaan:
• Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu;
• adjectives menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;
• klausa panjang dan kompleks;
• metafor.
2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix

Pengenalan / Orientasi
I absolutely love the Harry Potter series, and all of the books will always hold a special place in my heart.

Evaluasi :
I have to say that of all the books, however, this one was not my favorite.

Evaluasi 2 :
When the series began it was as much of a “feel good” experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. The stories were bright, fast-paced, intriguing, and ultimately satisfying.

Tafsiran (Interpretative recount) :
Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. In some instances this works…you feel a whole new level of intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. I was truly moved by the last page. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary, depressing feel. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here, and parts of it do seem long, as if we’re reading all about Harry “just hanging out” instead of having his usual adventures. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house, for example – housekeeping is still housekeeping, magical or no, and I’m not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it.

Rangkuman :
A few other changes in this book – the “real” world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books, and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book, especially with being a teenager and all, but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. He goes from being a warm-hearted, considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend’s heads off over nothing. It just seemed like it didn’t fit with his character, like he turned into a walking cliché of the “angry teen” overnight.

The “real” story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book, and this part I loved. I actually liked the ending (and yes, I cried!) as sad as it was. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. Still a really good book, with some editing it would have been great.



Social Function: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or sociocultural phenomena.

Generic Structure

  • A general statement to position the reader
  • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs.

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features

  • Focus on generic, non-human Participants
  • Use mainly of Material Processes and Relational Processes
  • Use mainly of Temporal and causal Circumstances and Conjunctions

Explanation text is a text genre which tries to explain how a thing happens or why the thing is made. Explanation text actually is similar to procedure text, however, explanation text tends to explain. While the procedure text is intended to instruct how to form or make something.
Bellow are some examples of explanation text which are grouped into several topics. This list of links relating to explanation text hopefully helps students to get more understanding about text genres, especially an explanation text.

Explanation texts about food
How a chocolate is made

Explanation texts about toy play
How a kite flies

Explanation texts about natural phenomena:
How a tsunami happens
How a Venus eclipse happens
How an earthquake happens
How rain happens
How seasons happen
How day and night happens
Why daylight in summer is longer than in winter

Explanation texts about technology
How a cell phone works
How a fuel light works

Explanation texts about monumental things
How roman roads were built
Why Eiffel tower was built

Explanation texts about diseases
How a cancer is formed

Read the rest of this entry



Definition and Social Function of Anecdote
Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its purpose is to entertain the readers.

Generic Structure of Anecdote
1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Incident.

Language Feature of Anecdote
1. Using exclamation words; it’s awful!, it’s wonderful!, etc
2. Using imperative; listen to this
3. Using rhetoric question; do you know what?
4. Using action verb; go, write, etc
5. Using conjunction of time; then, afterward
6. Using simple past tense

Tujuan Komunikatif:

Menceritakan insiden seperti peristiwa lucu atau tidak lazim baik berdasarkan khayalan atau kejadian nyata yang bertujuan menghibur.

Blessing Behind Tragedy

There was a black family in Scotland years ago. They were Clark family with nine children. They had a dream to go to America. The family worked and saved. They were making plan to travel with their children to America. It had taken several years but finally they had saved enough money. They had gotten passport. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America.

The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. However few days before their departure, the youngest son was bitten by a dog. The doctor sewed up the boy. Because of the possibility of getting rabies, there were being quarantined for long days. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. The family dreams were dashed. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned.

The father was full of disappointed and anger. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. He shed tears of disappointment. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune.

Five days latter, the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. The ship, the mighty Titanic, had shank. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It was unbelievable but it was.

The Clak family should have been on that ship, but because of the bitten son by a dog, they were left behind. When the father heard the news, he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. He thanked God for saving their lives. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2)

Generic Structure Analysis
Abstract: Everybody has a dream. You have and so do I. When the dream will come true, there is something wrong last minute before it. What will we feel? What will we do?

Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. They had dream to travel to America. They prepared well for their plan

Crisis: few days before they went to America, his youngest son was bitten by a dog. It made they were being quarantined. They had to forget their plan.

Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. The father was angry with his son and God. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it.

Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing.



Definition and Social Function :

Spoof is a text which tells factual story, happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Its social function is to entertain and share the story.

Generic Structure :

1. Orientation
2. Events
3. Twist

Language Feature :

1. Focusing on people, animals or certain things
2. Using action verb; ate, ran, etc
3. Using adverb of time and place
4. Told in chronological order

Examples of Spoof

What time is it?
A tramp lie down and sleep in the park. He had been sleeping for about 5 minutes when a couple walked by. The man stopped, woke the tramp up , and asked him, “Excuse me.
Do you know what the time is?” The tramp replied, “I’m sorry – I don’t have a watch, so I don’t know the time.”
The man apologized for waking the tramp and the couple walked away.

The tramp lay down again, and after a few minutes went back to sleep. Just then, a woman, who was out walking her dog, shook the tramp’s shoulder until he woke up again.
The woman said, “I’m sorry to trouble you, but I’m afraid I’ve lost my watch – do you happen to know the time?” The tramp was a little annoyed at being woken up again, but he politely told the woman that he didn’t have a watch and didn’t know the time.

After the woman had gone, the tramp had an idea.
He opened the bag that contained all his possessions and got out a pen, a piece of paper and some string. On the paper, he wrote down, ‘I do not have a watch. I do not know the time’.
He then hung the paper round his neck and eventually dropped off again.

After about 15 minutes, a policeman who was walking through the park noticed the tramp asleep on the bench, and the sign around his neck.
He woke the tramp up and said, “I read your sign. I thought you’d like to know that it’s 2:30 p.m.”



Purpose : to persuade the readers or listeners that something should or should not be the case.

Text Organization
A thesis

Language Features:
•The use of emotive words (e.g. worried, alarmed etc)
•The use of words that qualify statements (e.g. usual, probably etc)
•The use of words that link arguments (e.g. firstly, However, therefore etc)
•The use of compound and complex sentence
•The use of modals and adverbs (e.g. may, must, should, etc)
•The use of subjective opinions using pronouns I and we

Read this text of Hortatory exposition!


(Announcement of issue concern)

Do you know what the meaning of corruption is? What is the relation between money and corruption? Well, corruption is common everywhere in the world, even in the United States. It’s just a matter of intensity. However, it is quite shocking when one reliable survey claims Jakarta as the most corrupt place in Indonesia.

Argument 1

The survey has made me sad, actually, because I stay and earn a living here in the capital. As most people know, Tanjung Priok port smuggling is not a new thing at all. Entrepreneurs who want to minimize their tax payments tend to do such a thing more often. They even bribe the officials.

Argument 2

Well, I think the measures taken so far to overcome the problem by punishing the corruptors is still not far enough. We have to prevent the younger generations from getting a bad mentality caused by corruption.


I believe we should start at the earliest stages in school and I think everyone should be involved in the effort to eradicate corruption. We must not make any distinctio



Definition of Analytical Exposition
Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter.

Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition
1. Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position
2. Arguments: Explaining the arguments to support the writer’s position
3. Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position

Language Features of Analytical Exposition

  • Using relational process
  • Using internal conjunction
  • Using causal conjunction
  • Using Simple Present Tense


  • Read the following text!

    The Importance of EnglishThesis


 I personally think that English is the world’s most important language. Why do I say that?
  • Argument 1{ Firstly, English is an international language. It is spoken by many people all around the world, either as a first or second language.
  • Argument 2{ Secondly, English is also the key which opens doors to scientific and technical knowledge, which is needed for the economic and political development of many countries in the world.
  • Argument 3{ Thirdly, English is a top requirement of those seeking jobs. Applicants who master either active or passive English are more favorable than those who do not.Conclusion { From the fact above, it is obvious that everybody needs to learn English to greet the global era.



  • Notes:
  • Enumerations such as Firstly, secondly, thirdly etc are sometimes given to show the list of given arguments
  • Present Tense: I think, English is international language, Everybody needs to learn English etc.



Teks report (report text) adalah jenis teks yang mendeskripsikan atau menggambarkan bentuk, ciri atau sifat umum (general) benda, hewan, tumbuh-tumbuhan,  manusia atau peristiwa.

Teks report atau report text memiliki bentuk yang hampir sama dengan descriptive text. Siswa biasanya mengalami kesulitan membedakan antara kedua jenis teks ini.  Perbedaan yang paling mendasar pada kedua jenis teks ini adalah sebagai berikut.

- Report Text  mennggambarkan bentuk, ciri atau sifat benda, hewan, tumbuh-tumbuhan,  manusia atau peristiwa secara umum (general).

- Descriptive Text  mennggambarkan bentuk, ciri atau sifat benda, hewan, tumbuh-tumbuhan,  manusia atau peristiwa secara khusus (specific).

Report text memiliki kerangka atau struktur  (generic structure) sebagai berikut.

1.  General classification: memperkenalkan benda, hewan, tumbuhan, atau seseorang yang akan dibahas. Salah satu caranya adalah dengan membuat definisi atau klasifikasi.

2.  Description: menceritakan bagian, kualitas, sifat, tingkah laku benda, hewan, tumbuhan, atau seseorang yang dideskripsikan.

Tujuan (purpose) teks ini ialah memberikan informasi atau gambaran tentang ciri-ciri umum benda, hewan, tumbuhan, atau manusia.

Kata kerja (tense) yang digunakan biasanya simple present tense. Sekali lagi, teks deskriptif dan report tampaknya sama, tetapi sesungguhnya sangat berbeda. Teks deskriptif memberikan deskripsi sesuatu yang khusus atau tertentu, sedangkan report memberikan deskripsi tentang ciri-ciri umum dari suatu jenis benda hidup atau mati.

Teks report adalah teks yang menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu (objek, makhluk hidup, kejadian alam) secara apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan yang sistematis dan berdasarkan fakta.

Ciri yang membedakan teks report dan teks descriptive adalah cara penulisannya. Teks report hanya menjelaskan topik teks secara umum, sedangkan teks descriptive menceritakan topik teks secara lebih terperinci.

Struktur teks report yaitu:

  • General statement: Pernyataan awal yang menyampaikan pada pembaca mengenai topik teks secara umum
  • Description: Deskripsi secara umum dari topik teks

Contoh teks report:

Tyrannosaurus rex, sometimes just called T-rex, is believed to be the largest and most fearsome predator on Earth’s land ever to have existed. This dinosaur once roam the Earth in the Creataceous period approximately 68 to 65 million years ago.

As a carnivorous dinosaur, this giant predator most likely ambushed their prey, and devoured them with jaws full of white sharp teeth. With it’s fast ability to run at an astonishing speed of 32 mph (50 kmh), a perfect slim and stiff tail that gave it an excellent balance and allowed it to make quick turns, equipped this gigantic predator and made it even more deadly, like a killing machine.



1. Definition of News Item:

News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. The events are considered newsworthy or important.
2. Generic Structure of News Item:

  1.  Newsworthy event
  2.   Background Events
  3.   Source

3.  Language Feature of News Items

  1. Using Action Verb
  2.  Using Saying Verb
  3. Using Passive Sentence

Examples and structures of the text:

Town Contaminated

Newsworthy events:

Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.
Background Events:

Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock.
The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.
Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.



Teks deskriptif ( descriptive text ) adalah teks yang mendeskripsikan atau menggambarkan bentuk, ciri atau sifat benda, hewan, tumbuh-tumbuhan,  manusia atau peristiwa tertentu yang khusus, misalnya seekor jerapah yang hidup di kebun binatang Ragunan, bunga melati di halaman rumahku, atau Dodi temanku yang paling gemuk.

Descriptive text memiliki kerangka atau struktur  ( generic structure ) sebagai berikut.

1.  Identification: memperkenalkan benda,  hewan, tumbuhan, atau seseorang yang akan dideskripsikan. Misalnya:

  1. Mr. Pambudi, my new neighbor, is a well-known veterinarian in our city.
  2. One of the most beautiful houses in my village is Mr. Raman’s.
  3. Gembira Loka zoo is the most interesting zoo in Yogyakarta and has the most complete collection of animals in Java.

2.  Description: menceritakan bagian per bagian dari objek yang kita deskripsikan, misalnya  penggambaran dimulai dengan menceritakan bentuk fisiknya, kemudian ciri-ciri khusus, kualitas, sifat, dan tingkah laku benda, hewan, tumbuhan, atau seseorang yang dideskripsikan.

Penting untuk diperhatikan bahwa descriptive text memiliki bentuk dan ciri yang hampir sama dengan report text. Descriptive text menceritakan sesuatu atau objek yang sifatnya khusus (specific) sedangkan report text menceritakan sesuatu atau objek yang sifatnya umum (general).

Untuk membedakan sifat khusus dan umum, mari kita perhatikan contoh di bawah ini.

Deskripsi secara khusus (specific) untuk descriptive text

- Saya mempunyai dua buah pesawat televisi. Salah satunya adalah hadiah ulang tahun dari Paman. Ia membelinya dari Singapura. TV tersebut berlayar datar dan bisa merekam acara-acara yang saya gemari.

Pada contoh di atas saya hanya menceritakan TV saya yang baru hadiah dari Paman. Saya tidak bercerita tentan TV yang lain atau TV-TV pada umumnya.

Deskripsi secara umum (general) untuk report text

Televisi  atau TV adalah alat komunikasi canggih yang berbentuk gambar dan suara yang menyiarkan informasi dari seluruh dunia dan masuk ke jutaan rumah.

Pada contoh di atas saya menceritakan televisi secara umum. Oleh karena itu, report text biasanya dibuka dengan sebuah paragraf yang merupakan sebuah definisi. Sekarang lebih jelas, bukan? Itulah perbedaan antara descriptive text dengan report text.

Oke, kita kembali ke topic descriptive text.

Tujuan (the purpose) descriptive text ialah memberikan informasi atau gambaran benda, hewan, tumbuhan, atau seseorang yang dideskripsikan secara khusus.

Kata kerja (tense) yang digunakan biasanya present simple tense. Akan tetapi bisa juga menggunakan past simple tense, jika benda yang dideskripsikan sudah tidak ada.

Untuk lebih jelas, perhatikan contoh descriptive text di bawah ini! (paragraf berwarna biru adalah identification sedangkan paragraf berwarna merah adalah description)

Mr. Pambudi is a Veterinarian

Mr. Pambudi, my new neighbor, is a well-known veterinarian in our city.

He is a person who has studied to be a doctor of animals. He takes care of animals’ health. Many pet owners use his services to help them take care of their pets.

He takes care of cats and other small animals. Sometimes, he takes care of larger animals such as horses, cows.

If you have a pet at home, your pet has probably seen Mr. Pambudi. He can help you decide what kinds of food your animals should eat, what shots your pet will need, and how you should take care of your animals. It is important to take your pet to see Mr. Pambudi to make sure it stays healthy.

(Sumber: Let’s Talk IX: 194)

1. What is the purpose of the text? It is …

A. to describe a veterinarian in general.

B. to describe a particular person.

C. to entertain  the reader with a story.

D. to tell the past event.

Jawaban: B


Mengidentifikasikan fungsi sosial jenis teks.  Teks deskriptif berfungsi mendeskripsikan sesorang yang khusus (a particular person).


2. The paragraph 1 belongs to …

A. Orientation.

B. Identification.

C. Reorientation.

D. General classification.


Jawaban: B


Mengidentifikasi generic structure jenis teks. Paragraf pertama adalah identification


3. What does not Mr. Pambudi take care of?

A. Cats

B. Horses

C. Cows.

D. Wild wolves.

Jawaban: D


Menenukan informasi rinci. Nama  binatang yang tidak disebut adalah wild wolves.



Teks Recount adalah jenis teks yang memiliki tujuan untuk menceritakan peristiwa/kejadian yang berlangsung pada waktu lampau.

Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event

Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Reorientation

Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adjectives


Definition of Recount

Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative

Generic Structure of Recount

1. Orientation: Introducing the participants, place and time

2. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past

3. Reorientation: It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story

Language Feature of Recount

• Introducing personal participant; I, my group, etc

• Using chronological connection; then, first, etc

• Using linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc

• Using action verb; look, go, change, etc

• Using simple past tense

Examples :

My Adventure at Leang Cave

Orientation On Sunday, my parents, my best friend Novi, and I visited a cave at Maros called Leang-leang . It was my first time to visit the cave, better yet, my best friend came to visit it with me!

Event 1 The cave was famous for its primitive cave wall paintings which were some hand prints and wild boar paintings. The cave and its surroundings was turned into a national park, so it was taken care of. My parents took a rest in a small hut for visitors of the park, while Novi and I adventured around the cave with a guide. We had to climb some metal stairs to get to the cave, because the cave was embedded into a small mountain. Next stop was a place where some seashells littered the ground and some were actually piled into a big mound! The guide said that these piles of seashells are called kjokkenmoddinger, or kitchen trash.

Event 2 The humans who lived here ate the shells and dumped the left overs in their ‘kitchen’. The last place was a small museum where they have skeletons of the humans who lived in the caves. The skeletons along with some roughly made jewelry and weapons were placed inside glass cases for display. The walls of the museum were adorned with photographs taken when they did an excavation there.

Reorientation After a quick lunch with Novi and my parents, we decided it was time to go back home. We really had the time of our lives!