Adjective clause or relative clause tells us which (what kind of) person or thing the speaker means. For example:
ü The man who lives next door … (tells us which man)
ü People who live in London … (tells us what kind of people)
- ‘Who’ is used when we are talking about people. For example:
The man – he lives next door – is very friendly
The man who lives next door is very friendly.
It is also possible to use ‘that’ instead of ‘who’.
The man that lives next door is very friendly.
- ‘Which’ is used to talk about things. We can also use ‘that’.
ü A dictionary is a book which/that gives you the meanings of words.
ü Where are the eggs which/that are in the fridge?
- ‘Whose’ is used instead of his/her/their (mostly for people):
We saw some people – their car had broken down.
We saw some people whose car had broken down.
- ‘Whom’ is possible instead of who (for people) when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause. For example:
ü The man was away on holiday.
ü I wanted to see him.
ü The man whom I wanted to see was away on holiday.
ü In spoken English, we normally prefer who or that.
- ‘Where’ is to talk about places.
ü The hotel – we stayed there – wasn’t very clean
ü The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean.